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Artesia is a city in Eddy County, New Mexico. It is located at the center of the intersection of U.S. Route 82 and 285; the two highways serve as the city's Main Street and First Street, respectively. Its population at the 2000 census was 10,692. The name is after the discovery of an artesian aquifer in the area in 1903. It was incorporated in 1905.
The city has a total area of 8.0 square miles, of which 8.0 square miles is land and 0.13% is water.
The principal economic activities which support the city are the oil and gas industry, agriculture and dairy. Prominent, local oil and gas businesses include Yates Petroleum, Mack Energy Corporation, and Marbob Energy Corp. The latter's assets was bought by Concho Resources in 2010. Holly Corporation also operates the Navajo Refinery, the largest refinery in New Mexico, at the corner of 1st and Main Street. The city also has one of the few residential training sites of the Federal Law Enforcement Training Center (FLETC), mostly for United States Border Patrol Agents and U.S. Air Marshals.