Vascular surgery refers to a specialization practised by doctors in Knoxville,geared towards management of vascular diseases. The vascular system comprises arteries and veins. While initially major surgery was the primary means of treatment, now, minimally invasive surgery and medical therapy is preferred. The specialization covers studies of diagnosis, medical treatment, and reconstructive vascular surgical and endovascular techniques. Vascular surgery was included as a primary specialty of the American Board of Surgery in July 2006. Standalone vascular surgery clinics are now available at a number of places, reduces treatment time, complexity as well as overall time. Now, surgery is often the last option, with angiography, stenting, and non-operative varicose vein treatment sclerotherapy, endovenous laser treatment being the treatments of choice due to their minimally invasive nature. However, vascular surgery doesn't include studies or surgery of the heart or brain, which are specializations in their own right. Research is this field is growing and involves studies such as those on obstructive arterial lesions and aortic aneurysms. Vascular surgery is offered in Knoxville to manage diseases of the arterial, venous and lymphatic systems.